Play Online Games for Entertainment, Mental and Physical Alertness

Playing online games is one of the recently developed modes of entertainment. It is highly preferred by people of all age groups all over the world. Online games have become extremely popular among people for various reasons like can be played by users for free and at any convenient time, offers huge variety in games, has excellent computer graphics, and can be played by one or multiple users depending upon your choice and preference. So anyone who has a computer and access to internet can enjoy playing games-online for free.

Entertainment is the basic thing that is attached with playing of online games. This is true to quite an extent. Most average games that are categorized into action games, mind, racing, sports games, military and online flash games are basically built with the purpose of entertainment. But keeping in mind the growing interest of children in online games new category of games known as physics and maths games have been developed.

These games have been developed by applying some physics and maths theories to them. In order to solve the game, reach the end of the game or become a winner the player must apply those physics or maths theories. With this genre coming up along with entertainment online games now also help students learn their physics and maths lessons while they are still at play. Even adults enjoy playing these games as a lot of mind needs to be applied while playing these games.

In addition to helping children with their studies, there are other puzzle games that aim at rising mental aptitude of children. Again these games are played and enjoyed among people of all age groups as these help them improve their mental and physical alertness. So now you can allow your child spend as much time as he wants to in-front of the computer screen but make sure that along with entertainment he gets his necessary lessons.

How to Profit From Sports Gambling

The goal for sports punters is to earn a profit whilst enjoying our favourite sport. The sad truth is that for the majority of gamblers, this is an elusive dream. However by developing and carefully following a stratagem anyone can make this dream a reality.

There are two factors to consider to profit from sports gambling:

  • Bet Selection
  • Staking Plan

Bet Selection

The first, Bet Selection, is obvious – we need to back winners at least some of the time. Let’s consider Horse Racing, anecdotally there are many professional punters who earn a comfortable living from picking horses, but the key word here is professional. Research and analysis of each horse in the 59 racecourses across the UK takes a sizeable amount of time and experience. If you want to be successful then it’s a full time job! For the majority of us this means we have to use the advice of experts to do some of the legwork for us.

Horse Racing Tipsters

UK horse racing has no end of self-proclaimed “experts” on the Internet charging up to £100 per month. When selecting a horse racing tipster the most important factor we need to consider is long term results.

The Internet is awash with tipsters who have had one good month but then go on to post a loss for the next six – but you will only see this one month on their home page! Never follow any tips without first checking the tipster’s full result history. Choose a tipster who publishes all their horse racing tips history, ideally where the results of the tips are published the next day along with a complete history of all their tips.

Take a look at a Tipster Proofing site such as Racing-Index who grades the results for a number of tipsters. Consider which tipster gives you gave for money and fits with your own betting profile – can you actually place the 100s of tips each month some tipsters require?

Following tipsters alone is not likely to earn us riches – the best tipsters are locked out for new members or charge such high rates that any profits are lost immediately. The solution is to develop our own system using tips from expert sources combined with our own research. This is the strategy successfully used in greyhound racing by followers of the site. As with most things; the more you put into your system the more you will get out.

Staking Plan

Once we have a betting strategy in place it is time to look at a staking plan. The simplest is Fixed or Level Stakes where we simply bet the same amount, for instance 2% of our initial betting bank, each time on our selected horse, however we would want to increase our wagers as our betting bank grows. This leads to Percentage Staking where a percentage of the current betting bank is wagered each time. This means as we win our stakes are larger and conversely the stakes shrink when the betting bank decreases.

However, intuitively we know these staking plans to be overly naive as we would be putting the same amount of money on a horse with low odds compared to a horse with high odds. As we are looking to maximise our profits we should be putting a larger stake on a low odds bet as the return will be less.

To find the optimal staking plan we could take a correspondence course in statistics and dedicate several years into research. Fortunately we live in age where this research is at our fingertips. From probability theory we have the Kelly Strategy where the optimal percentage of our betting bank is calculated from the odds of the bet and our own estimate of the probability of the horse winning.

Using an online Kelly Strategy Calculator just feed in the values to get the percentage of the betting bank to put on each horse. Now the Kelly Strategy can give us some scary percentage stakes if we have an initial run of high odds horses so we could adapt it to a Half Kelly Staking Plan where we wager half the percentage advised by the Kelly Strategy. This would result in a slower accumulation of gambling profits but a less hair-raising ride.

The most important sports gambling advice to heed is only bet with funds you can afford to lose. Always gamble responsibly – if you feel you need help and advice with problem gambling visit http://www.gambleaware.co.uk.

Horse Race Betting – 2 Year Old Races

The youngest a horse can race in the UK is as a 2 year old. All horses birthdays are considered to be 1st January so dependent upon the actual date a horse was born there can be a considerable age difference between 2 year olds. Those born early in the year will obviously be more advanced than the later born.

However, trainers will not allow their 2 year old horses to run until they consider them strong enough and ready to run. Early in the flat season these races races are restricted to 5 furlongs,(1100 yards) and as the season progresses this is increased to 6 and then 7 furlongs and finally up to 1 mile.

As a punting medium, betting on juvenile races is not recommended, especially early in the season. The problem is that most are having their first or second runs and you know very little about them. There are some trainers who are experts at producing juveniles ready to win at the first time of asking. Equally many trainers prefer to give their horses a gentle introduction to the race course. So they discourage the jockeys from giving the horse a hard first race.

Betting markets for 2 year old horse races tend to thrive on reputation and rumor. Any youngster coming from a top stable is regarded as a good bet and the hint that a horse looks “promising” is enough for it to start odds on. I have not tested it but it would not surprise me to discover if you had a lay bet every odds on 2 year old with Betfair you might show a profit.

In August the 2 year old handicaps start and this really can be a minefield for the punter. In his excellent little book “Form Book Analysis” M L Midgley suggested in 2 year old races look for a horse that starts as 2nd to 4th favorite but then creeps into favorite or near favorite spot. His think was that this would indicate either stable and or “inspired” money was being put on the horse. I think that this small book may now be out of print but if you can get hold of a copy it is well worth reading.

Singapore – The Ultimate Gaming Venue

Singapore, the ‘visitor’s paradise’ is poised to eclipse Las Vegas, as a renowned gaming destination with more travelers choosing it as their favorite gaming and gambling spot. Be dazzled by one of the finest gaming halls; bump in to some poker halls and enjoy heart-pumping entertainment at Singapore, which is sure to relish you all!

Recently, legalized gambling has been spreading in Asia in a faster pace and Singapore has emerged as Asia’s hottest gaming destination. Resort World Casino, Sentosa, is an unrivaled gaming floor in Singapore, where the celebrations reach its zenith. Owned by one of Asia’s oldest gaming operators, the casino brims with never ending activities. Wide array of table games, slots, baccarat, blackjack, roulette and casino style poker games, keeps you entertained. More than just gaming, you can see Dale Chihuly’s magnificent glass sculptures, taste some of Singapore’s best culinary delights, and watch top-class shows. Tourists above 21 years of age having a valid passport can enter the gaming floor. Resort World Sentosa is an amazing casino and home to some grand hotels, Theme Parks, trendy shops, maritime museum and marine park.

Marina Bay Sands, a grand 5.5 billion dollar casino is definitely a try at least once in a life time. From baccarat to Singapore Stud Poker, you’ll get everything you are looking for. Get a chance to indulge and explore some exhilarating rapid table games- a combination of dealer and electronic betting interface, serenaded by world-class performances by jazz legends and pop sensations at ‘The Shoppes’ or whet your appetite with a selection of Chinese, Indian or Malay savory cuisines. It’s probably a place where you can shop till you drop. Marina Bay Sands gaming floor is the place where it all comes together.

For the roller coaster die-hard fans, chill out at Singapore’s Universal Studio. Hop on state-of-the-art rides; experience the ‘Transformers The Ride -3D’ show or coast ride out on ‘Battlestar Glactica’. It’s absolutely ‘universal’ and you’ll never forget the thrill.

Singapore Cable Car, Asia’s first cable car museum, presents a bird’s eye view of Singapore’s skyline. Unbelievable! Picturesque view of the city from Mount Faber is really an interesting move from the gambling vessels to the skyline. Take a stroll amidst the heaven of scenery, not only scenic, it is fun also.

Singapore Poker also has driven great popularity. Surprising Singapore doesn’t have a poker room and the great news for poker players is Resorts World Sentosa is planning to open the poker rooms soon. The underground poker network is active throughout Singapore, where the fans organize games. Getting a spot at these games is not very easy and the entry is strictly restricted by invitation only.

Singapore Flyer, the largest observation wheel is yet another exciting venue. Visitors can enjoy a ride in real a flight simulator, a journey of dreams. Enjoy a unique experience of viewing three countries Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, while you fly high in the sky!

Singapore also provides a variety of sports betting option for international and domestic football games and Grand Prix Auto races. Paint Ball Game played with a special paint ball gun also attracts guests. Either played indoors or at outdoors, fields of varying sizes offer realistic and unique experience. Red Dynasty Paint Ball Park and Bottle Tree Park offers some finest paintball scenarios.

The attractions here are vast and varied, whether it is about shopping off the beaten path, soaking in the cozy atmosphere or getting into some thick action with a variety of sporting or gaming action, Singapore is simply superb!

Small Business Debt Collection

Debt collection is important for all businesses, but it is much more important for small businesses.  A large business or corporation can better weather the ups and downs of economic cycles, because they have more financing options.  A small business on the other hand may not have as many options and one bad debt can send the company into bankruptcy.

It is extremely important that small businesses have an action plan for debt collection.  Without a written out plan, you are gambling with your business and its ability to stay out of bankruptcy.  Many businesses could have foregone bankruptcy during the financial crisis with a proper plan of action.

How do you decide what is the proper plan of action for collecting your old accounts receivables?  When is the time to start collecting and stop extending the terms?  This can depend on what type of business you have, but a general rule of thumb is the earlier you start, the better your chances of collecting the debt.  Take a look at the chart below to see the chances of collecting versus the age of the debt.

As you can see, the earlier you are to act, the better your chances for collecting the account.  The crucial time for debt collection is at 90 days past due.  The percentages drop by almost 25% and the debt becomes very hard to collect.

You should do all you can as a company to collect the debt before the 90 day mark, but make sure to turn the debt over for collections before the 90 day mark.  This will allow the collection agency to do their research and act on the debt before it gets to the 6 month time period.  It is very difficult to collect a debt if it goes past 6 months.  Most collection agencies will not waste their time with a debt this old.  It is hard for a collection agency to stay in business, because the odds of collecting are so low.

I wish you well in your small business affairs and I hope that you are able to collect all of your bad debts.  If there is one thing that you take from this article, make sure you act sooner than later, your business success might depend on it.

The Advantages Of An Online Football Bet

Football is an extremely popular sport. Some people watch the games for the fun of it while a huge majority is watching because they have bets riding on the outcome of the game. In the past, you need the services of a bookmaker or a betting outlet in order to place a football bet. In the present modern age, everything is made available on the internet and that includes betting.

You no longer have to go out of your house to go to an outlet or call your bookmaker to place your football bet. The best thing about an online bet is the convenience. You can just easily turn on your computer and log in to your account at any online site to place your football bet. If you do not have an account yet, then it is also very easy to open one. All you have to do is fill up a form with the required information and provide the details of your credit card and you are done. Placing an online bet is very convenient and easy.

Another advantage of an online football is that you can do it anytime and anywhere that you want. If you are traveling and you have your laptop with you then you can easily log on to your account on the online betting website and place your bet. This is very convenient if you are away from home and there is a match that you really want to bet on. You do not have to wait until you get home so you can call your bookmaker or go to the outlet. You can just place your football wherever you are. Another advantage of an online football is that you can do it anytime. There are no office hours to follow and you do not have to worry whether it is a decent hour or not. You can place your bet at any time of the day or night. You can place your bet even if it is in the middle of the night or in the wee hours of the morning since online betting websites are available 24 hours a day and seven days a week.

If you use online sites to place your football bet, you also get to receive bonuses which you will never get with the regular betting outlets. Some websites offer bonuses in the form of free bets once you open an account with them. Most websites also give free bets as bonuses once you deposit a certain amount to your account.

Cooper’s Law – 14 Easy to Follow Rules to Make Money From Horse Racing

Betting on tri-casts seems an improbable means to punting profit, but professional backer Paul Cooper used it to win nearly £400,000 on a series of bets at Thirsk.

Cooper was one of the first to capitalize on the fact that horses drawn high seemed to have a pronounced advantage over the straight sprint course at Thirsk. There are a number of tracks around the country where, in soft ground, a particular draw can prove an enormous asset, but at Thirsk the same was true on fast going. It appears that the inadequacies of the course watering system left a strip of ground under the stand rails ‘un-sprinkled’ which was significantly faster than the rest of the track. By betting the five or six highest draw numbers – those most likely to grab the favoured ground – Cooper was able to pull off a series of major coups.

‘I was hooked on betting at a very young age,’ admits Cooper. ‘But even then I knew that you had to be in control of it – otherwise it would control you.’

During the 1970’s, the ITV Seven was introduced. It immediately caught Cooper’s eye. ‘One of my first wagers was a £1.90 bet which won over £800. I was in business! A couple of years later, I collected £13,365 on a £3 accumulator and I was really on my way.’ Cooper is still fascinated by multiple bets – the prospect of huge returns for a small outlay – and believes serious punters should not treat them in such a cavalier fashion.

‘The Lucky 15 is a value bet.- it is a Yankee that also has four win singles, and the different bookies offer a variety of bonuses and consolations. For instance, if only one of your selections wins, you may get double the odds. So just one 7/1 winner virtually guarantees your money back.’

Cooper’s penchant for what Barney Curley calls ‘miracle bets’ is not his only apparent similarity with the man in the street. Like all betting shop regulars, he is irresistibly drawn to competitive handicaps where they bet 6/1 the field – but he hits the target far more often.

Cooper insists that studying trainers is the key to his whole business operation. The fact that, as an owner, he has chosen to have horses trained by Barry Hills, Jimmy Fitzgerald and Robert Williams gives a clue to the men he most respects in the game.’ ‘There are certainly some trainers I much prefer to back,’ he says. ‘What I really look for is someone who is perhaps underestimated and as a result their horses start at bigger prices than they should do.’

So what can we learn from the fastidious, immaculately turned-out Mr Cooper? Well, here are his 7 great Do’s and Don’ts, known as “Cooper’s Law!”

Cooper’s Law – Dos

1: Do stay cool, calm and collected when making a selection, and don’t go in head down. Weigh up all the possibilities and then have the nerve to go through with it.

2: Do bet only when you are getting good value and shop around for the best early prices.

3: Do back horses that have winning form. Shy away from maidens – the form is unpredictable and unproven.

4: Do bet in sprints. The form is often more reliable than in longer distance flat races.

5: Do find a small, competent yard to follow; because it isn’t fashionable, you’ll almost certainly get a value price on their horses.

6: Do look at horses in the paddock, especially in the spring and autumn. You can usually discard quite a few which are obviously not ready or are showing all the signs of a hard season.

7: Do bet within your means. Reduce your stakes when having a bad run – and increase them when things are going well.

Cooper’s Law – Avoid

1: Don’t get drunk or mix alcohol with betting. You need your wits about you to pick winners and to deal objectively with losing.

2: Don’t back short-priced favorites. The returns simply isn’t good enough, and let’s face it, they often get turned over anyway.

3: Don’t chase your losses. There’s always another day.

4: Don’t bet heavily when there’s been a sudden change in the going.

5: Don’t back out of form trainers or stables or jockeys carrying overweight.

6: Don’t back heavily at Chester. The tight track is a law unto itself.

7: Don’t bet in races over 18 runners. This is when the horses will split into two or more groups, effectively making it two or three different races.

Pathological Eating Disorders and Poly-Behavioral Addiction

When considering that pathological eating disorders and their related diseases now afflict more people globally than malnutrition, some experts in the medical field are presently purporting that the world’s number one health problem is no longer heart disease or cancer, but obesity. According to the World Health Organization (June, 2005), “obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight – at least 300 million of them clinically obese – and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Often coexisting in developing countries with under-nutrition, obesity is a complex condition, with serious social and psychological dimensions, affecting virtually all ages and socioeconomic groups.” The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June, 2005), reports that “during the past 20 years, obesity among adults has risen significantly in the United States. The latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics show that 30 percent of U.S. adults 20 years of age and older – over 60 million people – are obese. This increase is not limited to adults. The percentage of young people who are overweight has more than tripled since 1980. Among children and teens aged 6-19 years, 16 percent (over 9 million young people) are considered overweight.”

Morbid obesity is a condition that is described as being 100lbs. or more above ideal weight, or having a Body Mass Index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30. Being obese alone puts one at a much greater risk of suffering from a combination of several other metabolic factors such as having high blood pressure, being insulin resistant, and/ or having abnormal cholesterol levels that are all related to a poor diet and a lack of exercise. The sum is greater than the parts. Each metabolic problem is a risk for other diseases separately, but together they multiply the chances of life-threatening illness such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke, etc. Up to 30.5% of our Nations’ adults suffer from morbid obesity, and two thirds or 66% of adults are overweight measured by having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 25. Considering that the U.S. population is now over 290,000,000, some estimate that up to 73,000,000 Americans could benefit from some type of education awareness and/ or treatment for a pathological eating disorder or food addiction. Typically, eating patterns are considered pathological problems when issues concerning weight and/ or eating habits, (e.g., overeating, under eating, binging, purging, and/ or obsessing over diets and calories, etc.) become the focus of a persons’ life, causing them to feel shame, guilt, and embarrassment with related symptoms of depression and anxiety that cause significant maladaptive social and/ or occupational impairment in functioning.

We must consider that some people develop dependencies on certain life-functioning activities such as eating that can be just as life threatening as drug addiction and just as socially and psychologically damaging as alcoholism. Some do suffer from hormonal or metabolic disorders, but most obese individuals simply consume more calories than they burn due to an out of control overeating Food Addiction. Hyper-obesity resulting from gross, habitual overeating is considered to be more like the problems found in those ingrained personality disorders that involve loss of control over appetite of some kind (Orford, 1985). Binge-eating Disorder episodes are characterized in part by a feeling that one cannot stop or control how much or what one is eating (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Lienard and Vamecq (2004) have proposed an “auto-addictive” hypothesis for pathological eating disorders. They report that, “eating disorders are associated with abnormal levels of endorphins and share clinical similarities with psychoactive drug abuse. The key role of endorphins has recently been demonstrated in animals with regard to certain aspects of normal, pathological and experimental eating habits (food restriction combined with stress, loco-motor hyperactivity).” They report that the “pathological management of eating disorders may lead to two extreme situations: the absence of ingestion (anorexia) and excessive ingestion (bulimia).”

Co-morbidity & Mortality

Addictions and other mental disorders as a rule do not develop in isolation. The National Co-morbidity Survey (NCS) that sampled the entire U.S. population in 1994, found that among non-institutionalized American male and female adolescents and adults (ages 15-54), roughly 50% had a diagnosable Axis I mental disorder at some time in their lives. This survey’s results indicated that 35% of males will at some time in their lives have abused substances to the point of qualifying for a mental disorder diagnosis, and nearly 25% of women will have qualified for a serious mood disorder (mostly major depression). A significant finding of note from the NCS study was the widespread occurrence of co-morbidity among diagnosed disorders. It specifically found that 56% of the respondents with a history of at least one disorder also had two or more additional disorders. These persons with a history of three or more co-morbid disorders were estimated to be one-sixth of the U.S. population, or some 43 million people (Kessler, 1994).

McGinnis and Foege, (1994) report that, “the most prominent contributors to mortality in the United States in 1990 were tobacco (an estimated 400,000 deaths), diet and activity patterns (300,000), alcohol (100,000), microbial agents (90,000), toxic agents (60,000), firearms (35,000), sexual behavior (30,000), motor vehicles (25,000), and illicit use of drugs (20,000). Acknowledging that the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality was risky behavior lifestyles, the U.S. Prevention Services Task Force set out to research behavioral counseling interventions in health care settings (Williams & Wilkins, 1996).

Poor Prognosis

We have come to realize today more than any other time in history that the treatment of lifestyle diseases and addictions are often a difficult and frustrating task for all concerned. Repeated failures abound with all of the addictions, even with utilizing the most effective treatment strategies. But why do 47% of patients treated in private treatment programs (for example) relapse within the first year following treatment (Gorski,T., 2001)? Have addiction specialists become conditioned to accept failure as the norm? There are many reasons for this poor prognosis. Some would proclaim that addictions are psychosomatically- induced and maintained in a semi-balanced force field of driving and restraining multidimensional forces. Others would say that failures are due simply to a lack of self-motivation or will power. Most would agree that lifestyle behavioral addictions are serious health risks that deserve our attention, but could it possibly be that patients with multiple addictions are being under diagnosed (with a single dependence) simply due to a lack of diagnostic tools and resources that are incapable of resolving the complexity of assessing and treating a patient with multiple addictions?

Diagnostic Delineation

Thus far, the DSM-IV-TR has not delineated a diagnosis for the complexity of multiple behavioral and substance addictions. It has reserved the Poly-substance Dependence diagnosis for a person who is repeatedly using at least three groups of substances during the same 12-month period, but the criteria for this diagnosis do not involve any behavioral addiction symptoms. In the Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition’s section (DSM-IV-TR, 2000); maladaptive health behaviors (e.g., overeating, unsafe sexual practices, excessive alcohol and drug use, etc.) may be listed on Axis I only if they are significantly affecting the course of treatment of a medical or mental condition.

Since successful treatment outcomes are dependent on thorough assessments, accurate diagnoses, and comprehensive individualized treatment planning, it is no wonder that repeated rehabilitation failures and low success rates are the norm instead of the exception in the addictions field, when the latest DSM-IV-TR does not even include a diagnosis for multiple addictive behavioral disorders. Treatment clinics need to have a treatment planning system and referral network that is equipped to thoroughly assess multiple addictive and mental health disorders and related treatment needs and comprehensively provide education/ awareness, prevention strategy groups, and/ or specific addictions treatment services for individuals diagnosed with multiple addictions. Written treatment goals and objectives should be specified for each separate addiction and dimension of an individuals’ life, and the desired performance outcome or completion criteria should be specifically stated, behaviorally based (a visible activity), and measurable.

New Proposed Diagnosis

To assist in resolving the limited DSM-IV-TRs’ diagnostic capability, a multidimensional diagnosis of “Poly-behavioral Addiction,” is proposed for more accurate diagnosis leading to more effective treatment planning. This diagnosis encompasses the broadest category of addictive disorders that would include an individual manifesting a combination of substance abuse addictions, and other obsessively-compulsive behavioral addictive behavioral patterns to pathological gambling, religion, and/ or sex / pornography, etc.). Behavioral addictions are just as damaging – psychologically and socially as alcohol and drug abuse. They are comparative to other life-style diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease in their behavioral manifestations, their etiologies, and their resistance to treatments. They are progressive disorders that involve obsessive thinking and compulsive behaviors. They are also characterized by a preoccupation with a continuous or periodic loss of control, and continuous irrational behavior in spite of adverse consequences.

Poly-behavioral addiction would be described as a state of periodic or chronic physical, mental, emotional, cultural, sexual and/ or spiritual/ religious intoxication. These various types of intoxication are produced by repeated obsessive thoughts and compulsive practices involved in pathological relationships to any mood-altering substance, person, organization, belief system, and/ or activity. The individual has an overpowering desire, need or compulsion with the presence of a tendency to intensify their adherence to these practices, and evidence of phenomena of tolerance, abstinence and withdrawal, in which there is always physical and/ or psychic dependence on the effects of this pathological relationship. In addition, there is a 12 – month period in which an individual is pathologically involved with three or more behavioral and/ or substance use addictions simultaneously, but the criteria are not met for dependence for any one addiction in particular (Slobodzien, J., 2005). In essence, Poly-behavioral addiction is the synergistically integrated chronic dependence on multiple physiologically addictive substances and behaviors (e.g., using/ abusing substances – nicotine, alcohol, & drugs, and/or acting impulsively or obsessively compulsive in regards to gambling, food binging, sex, and/ or religion, etc.) simultaneously.

New Proposed Theory

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System’s (ARMS) theory is a nonlinear, dynamical, non-hierarchical model that focuses on interactions between multiple risk factors and situational determinants similar to catastrophe and chaos theories in predicting and explaining addictive behaviors and relapse. Multiple influences trigger and operate within high-risk situations and influence the global multidimensional functioning of an individual. The process of relapse incorporates the interaction between background factors (e.g., family history, social support, years of possible dependence, and co-morbid psychopathology), physiological states (e.g., physical withdrawal), cognitive processes (e.g., self-efficacy, cravings, motivation, the abstinence violation effect, outcome expectancies), and coping skills (Brownell et al., 1986; Marlatt & Gordon, 1985). To put it simply, small changes in an individual’s behavior can result in large qualitative changes at the global level and patterns at the global level of a system emerge solely from numerous little interactions.

The ARMS hypothesis purports that there is a multidimensional synergistically negative resistance that individual’s develop to any one form of treatment to a single dimension of their lives, because the effects of an individual’s addiction have dynamically interacted multi-dimensionally. Having the primary focus on one dimension is insufficient. Traditionally, addiction treatment programs have failed to accommodate for the multidimensional synergistically negative effects of an individual having multiple addictions, (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, and obesity, etc.). Behavioral addictions interact negatively with each other and with strategies to improve overall functioning. They tend to encourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, help increase violence, decrease functional capacity, and promote social isolation. Most treatment theories today involve assessing other dimensions to identify dual diagnosis or co-morbidity diagnoses, or to assess contributing factors that may play a role in the individual’s primary addiction. The ARMS’ theory proclaims that a multidimensional treatment plan must be devised addressing the possible multiple addictions identified for each one of an individual’s life dimensions in addition to developing specific goals and objectives for each dimension.

The ARMS acknowledges the complexity and unpredictable nature of lifestyle addictions following the commitment of an individual to accept assistance with changing their lifestyles. The Stages of Change model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) is supported as a model of motivation, incorporating five stages of readiness to change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The ARMS theory supports the constructs of self-efficacy and social networking as outcome predictors of future behavior across a wide variety of lifestyle risk factors (Bandura, 1977). The Relapse Prevention cognitive-behavioral approach (Marlatt, 1985) with the goal of identifying and preventing high-risk situations for relapse is also supported within the ARMS theory.

The ARMS continues to promote Twelve Step Recovery Groups such as Food Addicts and Alcoholics Anonymous along with spiritual and religious recovery activities as a necessary means to maintain outcome effectiveness. The beneficial effects of AA may be attributable in part to the replacement of the participant’s social network of drinking friends with a fellowship of AA members who can provide motivation and support for maintaining abstinence (Humphreys, K.; Mankowski, E.S, 1999) and (Morgenstern, J.; Labouvie, E.; McCrady, B.S.; Kahler, C.W.; and Frey, R.M., 1997). In addition, AA’s approach often results in the development of coping skills, many of which are similar to those taught in more structured psychosocial treatment settings, thereby leading to reductions in alcohol consumption (NIAAA, June 2005).

Treatment Progress Dimensions

The American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition”, has set the standard in the field of addiction treatment for recognizing the totality of the individual in his or her life situation. This includes the internal interconnection of multiple dimensions from biomedical to spiritual, as well as external relationships of the individual to the family and larger social groups. Life-style addictions may affect many domains of an individual’s functioning and frequently require multi-modal treatment. Real progress however, requires appropriate interventions and motivating strategies for every dimension of an individual’s life.

The Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) has identified the following seven treatment progress areas (dimensions) in an effort to: (1) assist clinicians with identifying additional motivational techniques that can increase an individual’s awareness to make progress: (2) measure within treatment progress, and (3) measure after treatment outcome effectiveness:

PD- 1. Abstinence/ Relapse: Progress Dimension

PD- 2. Bio-medical/ Physical: Progress Dimension

PD- 3. Mental/ Emotional: Progress Dimension

PD- 4. Social/ Cultural: Progress Dimension

PD- 5. Educational/ Occupational: Progress Dimension

PD- 6. Attitude/ Behavioral: Progress Dimension

PD- 7. Spirituality/ Religious: Progress Dimension

Considering that addictions involve unbalanced life-styles operating within semi-stable equilibrium force fields, the ARMS philosophy promotes that positive treatment effectiveness and successful outcomes are the result of a synergistic relationship with “The Higher Power,” that spiritually elevates and connects an individuals’ multiple life functioning dimensions by reducing chaos and increasing resilience to bring an individual harmony, wellness, and productivity.

Addictions Recovery Measurement – Subsystems

Since chronic lifestyle diseases and disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, alcoholism, drug and behavioral addictions cannot be cured, but only managed – how should we effectively manage poly-behavioral addiction?

The Addiction Recovery Measurement System (ARMS) is proposed utilizing a multidimensional integrative assessment, treatment planning, treatment progress, and treatment outcome measurement tracking system that facilitates rapid and accurate recognition and evaluation of an individual’s comprehensive life-functioning progress dimensions. The “ARMS”- systematically, methodically, interactively, & spiritually combines the following five versatile subsystems that may be utilized individually or incorporated together:

1) The Prognostication System – composed of twelve screening instruments developed to evaluate an individual’s total life-functioning dimensions for a comprehensive bio-psychosocial assessment for an objective 5-Axis diagnosis with a point-based Global Assessment of Functioning score;

2) The Target Intervention System – that includes the Target Intervention Measure (TIM) and Target Progress Reports (A) & (B), for individualized goal-specific treatment planning;

3) The Progress Point System – a standardized performance-based motivational recovery point system utilized to produce in-treatment progress reports on six life-functioning individual dimensions;

4) The Multidimensional Tracking System – with its Tracking Team Surveys (A) & (B), along with the ARMS Discharge criteria guidelines utilizes a multidisciplinary tracking team to assist with discharge planning; and

5) The Treatment Outcome Measurement System – that utilizes the following two measurement instruments: (a) The Treatment Outcome Measure (TOM); and (b) the Global Assessment of Progress (GAP), to assist with aftercare treatment planning.

National Movement

With the end of the Cold War, the threat of a world nuclear war has diminished considerably. It may be hard to imagine that in the end, comedians may be exploiting the humor in the fact that it wasn’t nuclear warheads, but “French fries” that annihilated the human race. On a more serious note, lifestyle diseases and addictions are the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, yet brief preventive behavioral assessments and counseling interventions are under-utilized in health care settings (Whitlock, 2002).

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that effective behavioral counseling interventions that address personal health practices hold greater promise for improving overall health than many secondary preventive measures, such as routine screening for early disease (USPSTF, 1996). Common health-promoting behaviors include healthy diet, regular physical exercise, smoking cessation, appropriate alcohol/ medication use, and responsible sexual practices to include use of condoms and contraceptives.

350 national organizations and 250 State public health, mental health, substance abuse, and environmental agencies support the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Healthy People 2010” program. This national initiative recommends that primary care clinicians utilize clinical preventive assessments and brief behavioral counseling for early detection, prevention, and treatment of lifestyle disease and addiction indicators for all patients’ upon every healthcare visit.

Partnerships and coordination among service providers, government departments, and community organizations in providing treatment programs are a necessity in addressing the multi-task solution to poly-behavioral addiction. I encourage you to support the mental health and addiction programs in America, and hope that the (ARMS) resources can assist you to personally fight the War on pathological eating disorders within poly-behavioral addiction.

For more info see:

Poly-Behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System,

By James Slobodzien, Psy.D., CSAC at:

[http://www.geocities.com/drslbdzn/Behavioral-Addictions.html]

Food Addicts Anonymous: http://www.foodaddictsanonymous.org/

Alcoholics Anonymous: http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/

References

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition,

Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 787 & p. 731.

American Society of Addiction Medicine’s (2003), “Patient Placement Criteria for the

Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, 3rd Edition,. Retrieved, June 18, 2005, from:

http://www.asam.org/

Bandura, A. (1977), Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review,

84, 191-215.

Brownell, K. D., Marlatt, G. A., Lichtenstein, E., & Wilson, G. T. (1986). Understanding and preventing relapse. American Psychologist, 41, 765-782.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved June 18, 2005, from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/

Gorski, T. (2001), Relapse Prevention In The Managed Care Environment. GORSKI-CENAPS Web

Healthy People 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: http://www.healthypeople.gov/

Publications. Retrieved June 20, 2005, from: http://www.tgorski.com

Lienard, J. & Vamecq, J. (2004), Presse Med, Oct 23;33(18 Suppl):33-40.

Marlatt, G. A. (1985). Relapse prevention: Theoretical rationale and overview of the model. In G. A.

Marlatt & J. R. Gordon (Eds.), Relapse prevention (pp. 250-280). New York: Guilford Press.

McGinnis JM, Foege WH (1994). Actual causes of death in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC 20201

Humphreys, K.; Mankowski, E.S.; Moos, R.H.; and Finney, J.W (1999). Do enhanced friendship networks and active coping mediate the effect of self-help groups on substance abuse? Ann Behav Med 21(1):54-60.

Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. H,-U, & Kendler, K.S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United

States: Results from the national co morbidity survey. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 51, 8-19.

Morgenstern, J.; Labouvie, E.; McCrady, B.S.; Kahler, C.W.; and Frey, R.M (1997). Affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous after treatment: A study of its therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action. J Consult Clin Psychol 65(5):768-777.

Orford, J. (1985). Excessive appetites: A psychological view of addiction. New York: Wiley.

Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1984). The transtheoretical approach: Crossing the boundaries of therapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger.

Slobodzien, J. (2005). Poly-behavioral Addiction and the Addictions Recovery Measurement System (ARMS), Booklocker.com, Inc., p. 5.

Whitlock, E.P. (1996). Evaluating Primary Care Behavioral Counseling Interventions: An Evidence-based Approach. Am J Prev Med 2002;22(4): 267-84.Williams & Wilkins. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Alexandria, VA.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

World Health Organization, (WHO). Retrieved June 18, 2005, from: http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/

Stop Compulsive Gambling Addiction With Education

Through proper education, society can develop programs to stop compulsive gambling addiction before it gets out of control. It’s unfortunate that people are willing to educate themselves only after they have been negatively affected by gambling. In most situations the damage has been done.

When most people think of education they think of schools and books. When in reality every day we are educating ourselves about life from the time we get up. To Learn about compulsive gamblers all we need to do is observe their patterns. Breaking the patterns will help in the recovery process. All the signs are there, all we have to do is face the truth. You start to ask yourself more and more questions. What are we going to do? We are going to find all the resources available and apply them to our situation. Through this knowledge we will help to accerlate the recovery. The first area to look at is your understanding of what you are going through. It dose not matter if you are the compulsive gambler, friend of the compulsive gambler or related to the compulsive gambler. Your life has been affected. It’s now time to focus. Educating yourself on compulsive gambling addiction will help you to plan for your future. You can have a wonderful future.

It’s first important to understand the definitions of compulsive, gambling and addiction. Through knowledge you will gain a better understanding of compulsive gambling addiction and find new alternative ways to treat it.

Compulsive is an uncontrollable desire to do something.

Gambling is the wagering of money where the end result is uncertain and the individual is willing to take a chance.

Addiction is a craving that develops into a dependency to repeat a certain behavior over and over with out regard for the outcome.

Combine these three words and you have an uncontrollable desire to gamble where the outcome is uncertain that develops into a dependency.

It’s unfortunate but most people can not tell that they have an addiction until they have developed a self destructive behavior that has negatively affected their life.

What causes a person to have a compulsive gambling addiction? No one knows for sure, but there are many similarities in the type of individual that have becomes addicted. If we can understand the type personality that is more susceptible to addiction, then we can at least safe guard ourselves. For example it’s an established fact that children of alcoholics have greater chance of becoming an alcoholic. Since there has been significant growth in the gambling industry more and more people have developed a compulsive gambling addiction.

Gambling is a common practice all over the world. It’s believed that gambling dates back to the ancient civilizations where people would gather to take a chance even though the odds were against them.

People who are close to you, who have developed a compulsive gambling addiction will not show signs until a majority of their resources have been depleted. However these people exhibited negative social behavior inside the gambling establishments.

The gambling establishments are not regulated by law to stop people from recklessly throwing away their money. Even though these places know what they are doing to people, they recklessly destroy people’s lives for profits.

The gambling establishments have seen gamblers stay up for two days straight gambling and have not turned them off. They have allowed these individuals and other to max out their credit cards. No one did anything to help them. A bar is required by law to turn someone off if they appear to be drunk. Gambling establishment’s can also identify people who are in trouble. I have taken the opportunity to interview employees at gambling establishments. The employees all stated that they could tell who had a compulsive gambling addiction based on their repetitive behavior patterns. For example they would continuously go back and forth to the cash machine, they are there at all hours of the day and night when rational people would be sleeping, been seen in the same clothes for more then two days and there are many more signs. Why doesn’t somebody do something about it?

When compulsive gamblers go out to the gambling establishments with friends or family they appear very conservative when they gamble at first. By the end of the night all the signs are there, but no one is paying any attention. A few signs are seeing them frequently go to the cash machine, not ready to leave when you are and they continually tell you that their luck is going to change with just one more bet.

You can find more information at I Stopped Gambling So Can You:

http://www.istoppedgambling.com/

Education is the key and increasing your knowledge will enable you to deal with your particular situation.

Insurable and Non-Insurable Risks

When we talk of insurance, we are referring to risks in all forms. Hence, having for an insurance policy is just a way of sharing our risks with other people with similar risks.

However, while some risks can be insured (i.e. insurable risks), some cannot be insured according to their nature (i.e. non-insurable risks).

Insurable Risks

Insurable risks are the type of risks in which the insurer makes provision for or insures against because it is possible to collect, calculate and estimate the likely future losses. Insurable risks have previous statistics which are used as a basis for estimating the premium. It holds out the prospect of loss but not gain. The risks can be forecast and measured e.g. motor insurance, marine insurance, life insurance etc.

This type of risk is the one in which the chance of occurrence can be deduced, from the available information on the frequency of similar past occurrence. Examples of what an insurable risk is as explained:

Example1: The probability (or chance) that a certain vehicle will be involved in an accident in year 2011 (out of the total vehicle insured that year 2011) can be determined from the number of vehicles that were involved in accidents in each of some previous years (out of the total vehicle insured those years).

Example2: The probability (or chance) that a man (or woman) of a certain age will die in the ensuring year can be estimated by the fraction of people of that age that died in each of some previous years.

Non-insurable Risks

Non-insurable risks are type of risks which the insurer is not ready to insure against simply because the likely future losses cannot be estimated and calculated. It holds the prospect of gain as well as loss. The risk cannot be forecast and measured.

Example1: The chance that the demand for a commodity will fall next year due to a change in consumers’ taste will be difficult to estimate as previous statistics needed for it may not be available.

Example 2: The chance that a present production technique will become obsolete or out-of-date by next year as a result of technological advancement.

Other examples of non-insurable risks are:

1. Acts of God: All risks involving natural disasters referred to as acts of God such as

a. Earthquake

b. War

c. Flood

It should be noted that any building, property or life insured but lost during an occurrence of any act of God (listed above) cannot be compensated by an insurer. Also, this non-insurability is being extended to those in connection with radioactive contamination.

2. Gambling: You cannot insure your chances of losing a gambling game.

3. Loss of profit through competition: You cannot insure your chances of winning or losing in a competition.

4. Launching of new product: A manufacturer launching a new product cannot insure the chances of acceptability of the new product since it has not been market-tested.

5. Loss incurred as a result of bad/inefficient management: The ability to successfully manage an organization depends on many factors and the profit/loss depends on the judicious utilization of these factors, one of which is efficient management capability. The expected loss in an organization as a result of inefficiency cannot be insured.

6. Poor location of a business: A person situating a business in a poor location must know that the probability of its success is slim. Insuring such business is a sure way of duping an insurer.

7. Loss of profit as a result of fall in demand: The demand for any product varies with time and other factors. An insurer will never insure based on expected loss due to decrease in demand.

8. Speculation: This is the engagement in a venture offering the chance of considerable gain but the possibility of loss. A typical example is the action or practice of investing in stocks, property, etc., in the hope of profit from a rise or fall in market value but with the possibility of a loss. This cannot be insured because it is considered as a non-insurable risk.

9. Opening of a new shop/office: The opening of a new shop is considered a non-insurable risk. You don’t know what to expect in the operation of the new shop; it is illogical for an insurer to accept in insuring a new shop for you.

10. Change in fashion: Fashion is a trend which cannot be predicted. Any expected change in fashion cannot be insured. A fashion house cannot be insured because the components of the fashion house may become outdated at any point in time.

11. Motoring offenses: You cannot obtain an insurance policy against expected fines for offenses committed while on wheels.

However, it should be noted that there is no clear distinction between insurable and non-insurable risks. Theoretically, an insurance company should be ready to insure anything if a sufficiently high premium would be paid. Nevertheless, the distinction is useful for practical purposes.